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five desires        cinq désirs     Ngũ dục    五欲    pañca kāmāḥ
The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep.


five faculties            Ngũ căn    五根    Pañcendriyāṇi
five heinous crimes        cinq forfaits    Ngũ nghịch    五逆    pañcānantarya
The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby.

five kinds of authorities of the doctrine        cinq sortes de maîtres du dharma     Ngũ chủng pháp sư    五種法師    
five kinds of remorse            Ngũ hối    五悔    
five meditations and four bases of mindfulness        cinq méditations    Ngũ đình tâm quán    五停心觀     
the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences.

five powers        Cinq forces    Ngũ lực    五力    pañca balāni
the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.

Five precepts        Cinq préceptes    Ngũ giới    五戒    Pañca śīlāni
the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神.


five vehicles        cinq véhicules    Ngũ thừa    五乗    pañca yāna
The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'.

five wrong views            Ngũ kiến    五見    pañca-dṛṣṭayaḥ
The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi, i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使.

forget thoughts, mistaken thought or conceptualization        Illusion    Vọng tưởng    妄想    vikalpa
Four bases of supernatural power            Tứ thần túc    四神足    catvāra ṛddhi-pādāḥ
Four correct endeavors            Tứ chính cần    四正勤    catvāri prahāṇāni
four great vows of bodhisattvahood        quatre vœux du bodhisattva     Tứ hoằng thệ nguyện    四弘誓願    
quatre vœux du bodhisattva (shi guzeigan, shigu-seigan, 四弘誓願). Quatre grands vœux prononcés par un bodhisattva quand il prend la décision de s'engager dans la pratique bouddhique : 1) faire passer l’infinité des êtres (sur la rive du nirvana) ; 2) trancher les innombrables passions ; 3) connaître l’insondable des enseignements du Bouddha ; 4) attester de la prééminence de la voie bouddhique.



four immeasurable minds        Quatre incommensurables    Tứ Vô Lượng Tâm (Từ Bi Hỷ Xả)    四無量心    catvāry apramāṇāni
the four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha-states of mind, also styled 四等 the four equalities, or universals, and 四梵行 noble acts or characteristics; i. e. four of the twelve 禪 dhyānas: 慈無量心 boundless kindness, maitrī, or bestowing of joy or happiness; 悲無量心 boundless pity, karuṇā, to save from suffering; 喜無量心 boundless joy, muditā, on seeing others rescued from suffering; 捨無量心 limitless indifference, upekṣā, i. e. rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of friend and enemy, love and hate, etc. The esoteric sect has a special definition of its own, connecting each of the four with 普賢; 虛 空 藏; 觀自在; or 盧 空 庫.

four kinds of birth        quatre formes de naissance     Tứ sinh    四生    catasro-yonayaḥ
Catur-yoni, the four forms of birth: (1) 胎 or 生 jarāyuja, viviparous, as with mammalia; (2) 卵生 aṇḍaja, oviparous, as with birds; (3) 濕生 or 寒熱和合生 saṃsvedaja, moisture, or water-born, as with worms and fishes; (4) 化生 aupapāduka, metamorphic, as with moths from the chrysalis, or with devas, or in the hells, or the first beings in a newly evolved world.


Four lands        Terres quatre    Tứ độ    四土    Buddha-kṣetra
The four Buddha-kṣetra, or realms, of Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience, sake.


four meditation heavens            Tứ thiền thiên    四禪天    Caturdhyānabhūmi
Four methods of winning (people) over            Tứ nhiếp pháp    四攝法    Catvāri saṃgraha-vastūni
four wisdoms            Tứ trí    四智    catvāri jñānāni

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