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distinct karmic reward            Biệt báo     別報    
Distinct karmic reward; also written 滿業. Activity--referring to relatively quickly actualized karma which generates more detailed difference between beings, such as the distinction in being born as rich or poor, beautiful or ugly, etc. This is as contrasted with more generalized karmic results, such as the species in which one is born, etc., called 總報. Also similar in meaning to 衣報.

distinct states; special objects            Biệt cảnh     別境    vibhāvanā
The ideas, or mental states which arise according to the various objects or conditions toward which the mind is directed. A special mental function that does not necessarily arise through all minds but rather accords to the 'mind-king' only in special situations--a mental function that judges special objects. The complement of the 'pervasively functioning' (bianxing 遍行) elements. According to the Faxiang 法相 sect, this group of elements falls under the general category of 'mental function' (心所) elements. 別境 includes five elements, which are desire (欲), verification (勝解), recollection (念), meditation (定) and wisdom (慧).

Distinctive characteristics        Caractéristique particulière    Biệt tướng    別相    bheda
Donate        Don / Donateur - Dana    Đàn na    檀那    Dāna
to give, donate, bestow, charity, alms.

donation        Le don    Bố thí    布施     Dāna
the sixth pāramitā, almsgiving, i. e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reincarnation, as neglect or refusal will produce the opposite consequences. The 二種布施 two kinds of dāna are the pure, or unsullied charity, which looks for no reward here but only hereafter; and the sullied almsgiving whose object is personal benefit. The three kinds of dāna are goods, the doctrine, and courage, or fearlessness. The four kinds are pens to write the sutras, ink, the sutras themselves, and preaching. The five kinds are giving to those who have come from a distance, those who are going to a distance, the sick, the hungry, those wise in the doctrine. The seven kinds are giving to visitors, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, endowments for the sustenance of monks or nuns, and clothing and food according to season. The eight kinds are giving to those who come for aid, giving for fear (of evil), return for kindness received, anticipating gifts in return, continuing the parental example of giving, giving in hope of rebirth in a particular heaven, in hope of an honoured name, for the adornment of the heart and life. 倶舍論 18.

egocentrism            Ngã chấp    我執    Ātma-grāha
holding to the concept of the ego

enlightened by contemplation on dependent arising        éveillé pour soi     Duyên giác    緣覺    Pratyekabuddha
pratyekabuddha 辟支佛; 辟支迦佛; 鉢剌翳伽陀 (鉢剌翳伽佛陀) In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas. Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term pratyekabuddha is not limited to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The non-Buddhist enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by early Buddhism, receiving its definition at a later period.

esoteric Buddhism            Mật giáo    密教    
Evil behavior        Conduite méchante    Ác hành    惡行    
evil destinies            Ác thú    惡趣    Durgati
evil destiny            Ác đạo    惡道    
experience            Nghiệp cảm    業感    
The influence of karma; caused by karma.

Fearlessness        Absence de crainte    Vô úy    無畏    Vaiśāradya, Abhaya
Absence of fright : when teaching the dharma, the Buddha and bodhisattva speak with trust, safety, without fear, firm and peace.

First meditation        Premier niveau d'expérience méditative    Sơ thiền    初禪    Prathama-dhyāna
first meditation heaven            Sơ thiền thiên    初禪天    prathama-dhyāna
five afflictions of advanced practitioners        cinq points de vue erronés    Ngũ lợi sử    五利使    pañca-dṛṣṭayaḥ
Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見.

five afflictions that affect beginning practitioners        cinq passions illusoires     Ngũ độn sử    五鈍使    pañca-kleśa
The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: 貪 desire, 嗔 anger or resentment, 癡 stupidity or foolishness, 慢 arrogance, 疑 doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities.

Five aggregates        Cinq agrégats    Ngũ uẩn    五蘊    Pañca Skandha
The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.

Five coverings        cinq voiles     Ngũ cái    五蓋     pañca āvaraṇāni
The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability, doubt.

five defilements        cinq impuretés ou cinq troubles    Ngũ trược    五濁    pañca kaṣāyāḥ
The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results.

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