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BouddhasSutraName-LocationTerms

Bilingual
VN-FRVN-ENVN-CHFR-VNFR-ENEN-VNEN-FR
necklace of precious stones            Anh lạc    瓔珞    Muktāhāra
nectar        ambroisie, lixir    Cam lộ    甘露    amṛta
Next life        Prochaine existence (Vie suivante)    Hậu kiếp    後劫    Abhisamparya
Nirvāṇa        Nirvāṇa    Niết bn    涅槃    Nirvāṇa
nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara.

Nirvāṇa with remainder            Hữu dư niết bn    有餘涅槃    Sopadhi-śeṣa-nirvāṇa
Incomplete nirvāṇa. Hīnayāna holds that the arhat after his last term of mortal existence enters into nirvāṇa, while alive here he is in the state of sopādhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa, limited, or modified, nirvāṇa, as contrasted with 無餘涅槃 nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna holds that when the cause 因 of reincarnation is ended the state is that of 有餘涅槃 incomplete nirvāṇa; when the effect 果 is ended, and 得佛之常身 the eternal Buddha-body has been obtained, then there is 無餘涅槃 complete nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna writers say that in the Hīnayāna 無餘涅槃 'remainderless' nirvāṇa for the arhat there are still remains of illusion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore 有餘涅槃; in Mahāyāna 無餘涅槃 these remains of illusion, etc., are ended.


Nirvāṇa without remainder        Nirvāṇa sans reliquat    V dư niết bn    無餘涅槃    Nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa
anupadhiśeṣa, the nirvāṇa state in which exists no remainder of the karma of suffering; it is also the nirvāṇa of arhat extinction of body and mind, described as 無餘灰斷.

Noble Eightfold Path        Noble Sentier Octuple    Bt chnh đạo    八正道    Aṣṭāṅgika-mārga
Noetic hindrances            Sở tri chướng    所知障    Jeyāvaraṇa
The barrier of the known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.


Non-active        inconditionn    V vi    無為    asaṃskṛta
Non-active, passive; laisser-faire; spontaneous, natural; uncaused, not subject to cause, condition, or dependence; transcendental, not in time, unchanging, eternal, inactive, and free from the passions or senses; non-phenomenal, noumenal; also intp. as nirvāṇa, dharma-nature, reality, and dharmadhātu.


Non-appeared definite body        Corps formel non-apparu    Ẩn một tướng    隱沒相    
One of the definite bodies of Buddha. The life of Buddha is infinite but this body is provisionally hidden.

nothing to be attained            V sở đắc    無所得    aprāptitva
nun        nonne bouddhiste    Tỉ khu ni, T kheo ni    比丘尼     bhiksuni