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Ten powers of Budha        Dix pouvoirs de Bouddha    Như lai thập lực    如來十力    Daśa balāni
See Ten powers

ten wisdoms            Thập trí    十智    Daśa jñānāni
The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas."


tethers of desire            Ái kết    愛結    
The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi        samadhi du lieu des Sens infinis    Vô lượng nghĩa xứ tam muội    無量義處三昧    anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna-samādhi
The anantanirdeśapratiṣṭhāna samādhi, into which the Buddha is represented as entering before preaching the doctrine of infinity as given in the Lotus Sūtra.


The eighteen dhātu        Dix-huit domaines     Thập bát giới    十八界    aṣṭādaśa dhātavaḥ
The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions.

The fourfold stage of mindfulness        quatre méditations hinayana ou theravada    Tứ niệm xứ    四念處    catvāri smṛty-upasthānāni
The fourfold stage of mindfulness, thought, or meditation that follows the 五停心觀 five-fold procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of contemplating (1) 身 the body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) 受 sensation, or consciousness, as always resulting in suffering; (3) 心 mind as impermanent, merely one sensation after another; (4) 法 things in general as being dependent and without a nature of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality, and purity 常, 樂, 我, and 淨, i. e. the four 顚倒, but v. 四德. They are further subdivided into 別 and 總 particular and general, termed 別相念處 and 總相念處, and there are further subdivisions.


The fruit of karma            Nghiệp quả    業果    
The fruit of karma, conditions of rebirth depending on previous karmic conduct.


The ten essential qualities        Dix modalités d'expression de la vie    Thập như thị    十如是    
The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form; 性如是 nature; 體如是 corpus or embodiment; 力如是 powers; 作如是 function; 因如是 primary cause; 果如是 environmental cause; 果如是 effect; 報如是 karmic reward; 本末究竟等 the inseparability, or inevitability of them all.


The ten essential qualities        Dix mondes-états    Thập giới    十界    
The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative Buddhas, 實佛 absolute Buddhas.


The third region in the realm of formlessness.        Troisième des quatre royaumes du monde du sans-forme    Vô sở hữu xứ    無所有處    ākiñcanyāyatana
The third region in the realm of formlessness.


the three evil paths, three bad migrations        trois mauvaises voies    Tam ác đạo    三惡道    sannaku, san-akushu
The hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

The threefold body        trois corps    Tam thân    三身    Trayaḥ kāyāḥ
The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.

the white lotus society        Société du Lotus Blanc    Bạch liên xã    白蓮社    
Third meditation        Troisième niveau d'expérience méditative    Tam thiền    三禪    Tri-dhyāna
third meditation heaven            Tam thiền thiên    三禪天    Tri-dhyāna
Third noble person        Troisième noble personne    A na hàm    阿那含    Anāgāmin
Person who does not come back. It is the third of the four noble persons (āryapudgala) who left the nine categories of stains of pleasures and who does not return any more in the world of desire (kāmadhatu).

three awarenesses        trois connaissances mystiques     Tam minh    三明    tisro-vidyāḥ
three categories of self-restraint        trois plans     Tam giới    三界    trayo dhātavaḥ
Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined.

three conditions        trois catégories d'actions ou trois sortes de karma    Tam nghiệp    三業    Trīṇi karmāṇi
The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three.

Three delusions        Trois illusions     Tam hoặc    三惑     
A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.


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