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Bilingual
VN-FRVN-ENVN-CHFR-VNFR-ENEN-VNEN-FR
Nirvāṇa with remainder            Hữu dư niết bÓn    有餘涅槃    Sopadhi-śeṣa-nirvāṇa
Incomplete nirvāṇa. Hīnayāna holds that the arhat after his last term of mortal existence enters into nirvāṇa, while alive here he is in the state of sopādhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa, limited, or modified, nirvāṇa, as contrasted with 無餘涅槃 nirupadhiśeṣa-nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna holds that when the cause 因 of reincarnation is ended the state is that of 有餘涅槃 incomplete nirvāṇa; when the effect 果 is ended, and 得佛之常身 the eternal Buddha-body has been obtained, then there is 無餘涅槃 complete nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna writers say that in the Hīnayāna 無餘涅槃 'remainderless' nirvāṇa for the arhat there are still remains of illusion, karma, and suffering, and it is therefore 有餘涅槃; in Mahāyāna 無餘涅槃 these remains of illusion, etc., are ended.