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five defilements        cinq impuretÚs ou cinq troubles    Ngũ trược    五濁    pa˝ca kaṣāyāḥ
The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results.