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enlightened by contemplation on dependent arising        éveillé pour soi     Duyên giác    緣覺    Pratyekabuddha
pratyekabuddha 辟支佛; 辟支迦佛; 鉢剌翳伽陀 (鉢剌翳伽佛陀) In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas. Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term pratyekabuddha is not limited to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The non-Buddhist enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by early Buddhism, receiving its definition at a later period.